Before the construction of Anitkabir, the name of Anittepe was Rasattepe because of the presence of anittepe station.
On this hill, m.P 12. during the century, there were tumuli (burial structures) belonging to the Phrygian civilization that established the state in Anatolia. After it was decided to build Anitkabir in Rasattepe, archaeological excavations were carried out to remove these tumuli. Artifacts recovered from these tumuli are displayed in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
After determining the Anitkabir project, nationalization work was started in the first stage so that construction could begin. Construction of Anitkabir began on October 9, 1944 with a magnificent groundbreaking ceremony. The construction of Anitkabir was carried out in 4 stages over a period of 9 years.
1940-1950 in Turkish Architecture, " II Dec. The period of National Architecture is called". During this period, buildings were built that outweigh the monumental aspect, gave importance to symmetry, and used cut stone material. Anitkabir bears the characteristics of this period.
Along with the features of this period, Seljuk and Ottoman architectural features and ornamental elements are often found in Anitkabir.
For example, on the exterior facades, where the walls meet with the roof, there is a border called Sawtooth in Seljuk stonework that wraps the towers on four sides. In addition, the stone decorations called passionfruit and Rosette used in some parts of Anitkabir (Mehmetçik Tower, Museum Directorate) are also prominent in Seljuk and Ottoman art.
Anitkabir, one of the best examples of the period in which it was built with all these features, covers an area of about 750,000 m2 and is divided into two parts as a Peace Park and a memorial block.
Anitkabir; inspired by Atatürk's motto "magistrate in the dormitory, magistrate in the Jihad", rises in the Peace Park created with saplings brought from various foreign countries and some parts of Turkey.
Afghanistan, A.B.D. Germany , Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, Finland, France, India, Iraq, Great Britain, Spain, Israel, Sweden, Italy, Japan, Canada, Cyprus, Egypt, Norway, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Greece were brought from various trees and saplings. Today, there are about 48,500 ornamental trees, treetops and ornamental plants of 104 different species in Peace Park.
Anitkabir Memorial block consists of three parts.
When entering Anitkabir through the Tandogan gate, 26 steps wide stairs are reached at the beginning of Aslanlı Road from the road that runs in the Peace Park. At the beginning of the ladder, the istiklal and Hurriyet towers are mutually located.
Within Anitkabir building community, there are ten towers that are placed with symmetry in mind. These towers have been given names that represent the Supreme concepts that have had a great impact on the formation of our nation and state. The towers are similar in plan and structure. 12 x14 x7,20 m near the square. the towers, which are built on a rectangular plan in size, are covered with pyramid-shaped roofs. At the top of the roofs are bronze spearheads seen in ancient Turkish tents. Geometric decorations taken from old Turkish rug patterns were applied in fresco technique.
In addition, on the inner walls of the towers, there is a composition about the name of this tower and the concise words of Atatürk.
In the relief found on the inner walls of the Istiklal Tower at the right head of the Lion Road, the figure of an eagle placed on a rock is seen next to a teenager standing and holding a sword with both hands. The Eagle is depicted in mythology and Seljuk art as a symbol of power, independence and independence. The young man holding the Sword represents the Turkish nation defending independence. The relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.
In addition, Atatürk's words about independence are included as a border of writing on the walls of the tower:
"As our nation seemed to end with the most terrible extinction, the voice of his ancestors, who invited his son to revolt against his captivity, rose in our hearts and called us to the last war of Independence." (1921)
"Life means fighting, fighting. Success in life is certainly possible with success in war." (1927)
"We are a nation that wants life and independence, and we are alone, and only for this do we ignore our lives." (1921)
"There is no principle of begging for mercy and mercy. The Turkish nation, the future children of Turkey, should not forget this for a moment." (1927)
"This nation has not lived, cannot live and will not live without independence, either independence or death." (1919)
Inside the tower are a model of Anitkabir and illuminated boards that identify Anitkabir.
In the relief inside the Freedom Tower, located at the left head of the Aslanlı Road, a horse standing up to the king is depicted next to the angel with the figure of an angel holding paper. The angel figure symbolizes the sanctity of independence, the paper in his hand symbolizes the "Declaration of freedom". The horse figure is a symbol of freedom and independence. The relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.
Atatürk's words about freedom are written on the walls of the tower.
"The main thing is that the Turkish nation lives as a respected and honorable nation. This can only be achieved by having complete independence. A nation devoid of independence, no matter how rich and abundant it is, cannot qualify for a higher process than the state of being a butler in the face of civilized humanity." (1927)
"I think it is possible that Honor, Honor, Honor and humanity can be found in a nation on a permanent basis, certainly by having the freedom and independence of that nation."
"It is national sovereignty on which freedom, equality and justice are based."
"We are a nation that has been a symbol of freedom and independence in all our historical lives."
Inside the tower there is a photo exhibition showing the construction work of Anitkabir and examples of stone used in the construction.
In front of the Istiklal Tower is a sculpture group of three women dressed in national clothes. Two of these women on the sides hold a thick wreath that extends to the ground. The wreath formed by Virgo bundles represents our fertile country. The woman on the left begs God's mercy to Atatürk with the Cup in her hand, which she extends forward, and the woman in the middle cries with her hand covering her face.
This tripartite group expresses the pride, dignity and determination of Turkish women even in the deep pain of Atatürk's death. The sculpture group is the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
In front of the Freedom Tower is a sculpture group of three men. The man on the right represented the Turkish soldier with his helmet and thick hood on his head, while the Turkish youth and intellectual man with his book in his hand next to him, and the Turkish peasant in local clothes a little behind him were represented. With deep pain on the face of all three statues, the unique dignity and high Willpower of the Turkish nation were expressed. The sculpture group is the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
262 m, which was built to prepare visitors for the Supreme presence of Atatürk. there are 24 lion statues in seated position on either side of the road in length. Because of Atatürk's importance to Turkish and Anatolian history, lion sculptures made with the art style of the Hittites, who founded civilization in Anatolia, represent strength and calm. The sculptures are the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
The ceremonial square at the end of the Lion Road is 129 x84,25 m. it measures. The floor of this area, which has a capacity of 15,000 people, is decorated with 373 carpets and rugs consisting of travertine stones in black, red, yellow and white colors.
At the end of Aslanlı road, Mehmetçik Tower is located on the right. In the relief on the outer surface of the tower, the departure of Mehmet, who is going to the facade, is expressed. In this composition, a sad, but proud mother is depicted, who throws her hand on the shoulder of her soldier son and sends him to fight for the homeland. The relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.
On the walls of the tower are the pithy words that Atatürk said about Mehmetchik and Turkish women:
"The hero Turk Eri understood the meaning of the Anatolian wars and fought with a new country." (1921)
"Nowhere in the world, in any nation, is it possible to talk about women's work on Anatolian peasant women." (1923)
"No measure can be found for the dedication and heroism of the children of this nation."
Inside the tower; various books and souvenirs related to Anitkabir and Ataturk are presented to visitors.
Located between mehmetchik and Zafer towers, there is a "library of Ataturk and the Turkish Revolution" in the unit inside the Museum, Library and Cultural Activities Directorate.Dec. Atatürk, national struggle and revolutions on weekdays as a "specialized library" with books in Turkish and foreign languages, researchers and readers from all walks of life 09.00-12.30 / 13.30-17.00 it is decommissioned. *Source: T.C Ministry of Culture and Tourism
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